Challenges and Countermeasures of the latest indus

2022-07-25
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Challenges and responses to the new industrial revolution 1. The new industrial revolution is in a critical starting period

(I) industrialization brought about by the scientific and technological revolution gives birth to the industrial revolution

the formulation of the new industrial revolution was not new in previous years. Before that, there were popular concepts such as the wave of informatization, the information revolution and the new energy revolution. In fact, most of these concepts and formulations are policy propositions or trend forecasts, rather than objective descriptions or scientific summaries of what is happening. As for the industrial revolution, we should make clear two understandings:

first, the scientific and technological revolution is not equal to the Industrial Revolution (or industrial revolution). The information revolution and the new energy revolution only show that some breakthroughs have been made or major breakthroughs are facing in some scientific and technological fields. Only when the industrialization brought about by scientific and technological progress and innovation has promoted the revolution of production mode in global industry and the revolution of life style in global society, can we say that the world has entered a new era of a new round of industrial revolution

secondly, the industrial revolution, as a fundamental change in the way of human production and life, is the result of a gradual institutional change. It cannot be achieved overnight. It must go through several stages, such as gestation, rise and maturity. The technological route and development path of its leading industry have an evolutionary process of exploration, establishment and diffusion

(II) main favorable factors for the rise of the new industrial revolution at present

first, from the perspective of the demand of the new industrial revolution, all major economies have a positive attitude and good institutional conditions in adopting new technologies and promoting their industrialization to seize the commanding heights of a new round of technology and industrial competition. The financial crisis makes the developed countries re-examine the relationship between the real economy and the virtual economy. It is an inevitable choice for the developed economies to achieve the revival of manufacturing through the development of high-end manufacturing. However, with the shortage of resources and energy and the increase of the cost of production factors, the development of emerging economies has also encountered increasingly prominent bottleneck constraints, making it difficult to further improve the competitiveness of the manufacturing industry. Both developed countries and emerging economies need to promote the formation of a new industrial revolution in order to truly solve the deep-seated problems of the global economy and achieve a new round of global economic growth

secondly, from the perspective of the supply base of the new industrial revolution, the global society has made technological progress in the past 20 and 30 years, which has laid a good industrialization foundation for the rise of the third industrial revolution. At present, the booming new generation of information technology, biotechnology, new energy, new materials and other new technologies are forming industrial capacity and scale market at a very fast speed, thus providing a strong driving force for industrial reform

The essence of industrial revolution is a profound institutional innovation and institutional change. The first industrial revolution created the steam age of machine factories, and the second industrial revolution brought mankind into the electrical age of mass production. Today, the integration and breakthrough of a series of major related technologies such as production materials, manufacturing processes and green energy technologies will raise the entire industrial production system to a new level. From the perspective of the combination of demand and supply of institutional change, although it is not clear that the new industrial revolution has come in an all-round way, it can be said that the scientific and technological revolution has promoted a new industrial revolution. Gehonglin, the party secretary and chairman of the aluminum group, once pointed out that it is in a critical start-up period when he visited the company

II. The new industrial revolution will trigger great changes in the mode of production

(I) major scientific and technological innovations that will lead the new industrial revolution in the future

in the future new industrial revolution, we believe that technological progress and its integrated development in the fields of new energy, biotechnology, new generation information technology, new materials, etc. will play a key role and have a significant impact in the new round of global economic change: first, cloud computing New generation information technology represented by big data; Second, intelligent manufacturing technologies such as 3D printing; Third, renewable energy technology and energy interconnection technology; Fourth, carbon fiber and stone can also consume the high-grade powder inventory accumulated when profits are rich. Today's transaction is still represented by the new material technology of medium and low grade powder ore, mainly graphene; Fifth, modern biotechnology such as genetic engineering. On the whole, the essence of the scientific and technological innovation that has driven this new industrial revolution can be attributed to several major features, such as intelligent manufacturing, energy interconnection, digital services and new material compounding

racemization (II) future development trend of manufacturing industry

we believe that the future manufacturing industry will change to global manufacturing, flexible manufacturing, green manufacturing, intelligent manufacturing and service manufacturing, and the production mode will also change significantly

first, manufacturing networking. In the third industrial revolution in the future, with the promotion of new digital production technology, virtual industrial clusters will be created through interconnected collaborative manufacturing, which will make it possible to call the new manufacturing mode of socialized production and lead to the change of the organizational form of industrial production. Multinational enterprises decompose the product value chain into supporting cooperative enterprises in different countries through networks. The product production process is completed by efficient and fast cooperation of multiple enterprises around the world. The enterprises that started the largest functional membrane material R & D and production base in Zhejiang Province have established close ties with the environment across the border in a network way

second, intelligent manufacturing. The whole production process is composed of new sensors, intelligent control system, robots and automatic production lines. The manufacturing system has changed from energy driven in the past to modern information driven. In the future, factories will be operated by intelligent software. Computers can imitate production systems and produce products in a virtual environment

third, manufacturing flexibility. Due to the adoption of new materials, new production processes, easy-to-operate robots, and the popularity of manufacturing collaboration services, the cost of design and change of industrial products will be greatly reduced. The new manufacturing system represented by reconfigurable manufacturing system can rearrange, reuse and update the system configuration or subsystem, so that enterprises can change the production process and process in time and flexibly produce a variety of products according to customer needs, Realize global dynamic optimization, overall high benefit and process high flexibility, and then win competitive advantage

fourth, green manufacturing. Rapid prototyping manufacturing such as 3D printing will enable the company to conduct localized production and respond quickly to changes in demand without preparing a large amount of inventory. The whole product life cycle from design, manufacturing, packaging, transportation, use to scrap disposal has the least negative impact on the environment and the highest resource utilization rate, realizing the coordination and optimization of economic and social benefits

fifth, manufacturing services. From traditional product manufacturing as the core of production, to providing products and services with rich service connotation, and to providing customers with overall solutions. At the same time, the full integration of invention and manufacturing process has blurred the boundaries between manufacturing and intelligent industries such as information technology. Its essence is the integration of manufacturing based services and service-oriented manufacturing

in the new industrial revolution, the new production mode is likely to break through the low-cost large-scale flow production mode and be different from the high-cost personalized customization, so as to achieve an effective balance between differentiated products and production costs

III. possible impact of the new industrial revolution on the global industrial division system and China's industry

first, the third industrial revolution will reshape the comparative advantage among countries and help developed countries reshape the global industrial layout and industrial structure system. At present, developed countries have significant advantages in new materials, new energy, biotechnology and new generation information technology. For example, the United States is obviously in a leading position in shale oil and gas exploitation technology, rapid prototyping manufacturing technology, complex touch screen technology and other fields. The Reindustrialization of developed countries is mainly the reconstruction of the manufacturing industry chain, focusing on the reconstruction of high value-added links. With the industrialization of the leading technology of the new industrial revolution entering a period of rapid development, high-cost countries will produce more personalized and higher value-added products through more flexible and economical new manufacturing equipment. In the future, the strength comparison in the manufacturing field will be tilted to developed countries again. The speed at which developing countries catch up with developed countries in terms of manufacturing output will be significantly slower than that in the first decade. This will affect the regional layout of the global industry, leading to a major restructuring of the global industrial pattern

secondly, due to the rising cost of land, labor and other factors in China, the two-way squeeze from high-end developed countries and low-end developing countries poses a severe challenge to China's industry. On the one hand, developed countries, relying on their leading basic research capabilities, strong high-tech and innovation advantages, take the lead in seizing the commanding heights of advanced manufacturing industry and step up setting thresholds in terms of technology, standards, rules and markets, making it more difficult for China's manufacturing industry to upgrade to the high end of the value chain; On the other hand, developed countries attract high-end manufacturing enterprises to return by increasing R & D investment, strengthening investment and preferential tax policies. It will be more and more difficult for China to obtain the opportunity of technology spillover from high-tech multinational companies by attracting foreign direct investment. If rapid prototyping manufacturing technology matures rapidly in the future, it will greatly reduce various production costs including capital, labor, packaging, distribution and other links. The importance of large-scale production assembly lines, complete supply chains and economies of scale will tend to decline. China's industry may face the worry of losing its existing comparative advantage in the low-end links. If we can not make great breakthroughs in technological innovation and institutional efficiency, China's advantages as a global manufacturing center will be gradually weakened

IV. how to meet the challenge of the new industrial revolution to China

the arrival of the third industrial revolution wave is a combination of challenge and opportunity for China. At present, China's industry is in a critical period of transformation and upgrading. To build a modern industrial power and successfully respond to the challenges of the new industrial revolution, we must have four innovations to drive and support:

first, the innovation of ideas. In the 30 years of reform and opening up, China's industry has grown rapidly and achieved remarkable results, but it has also paid a great price. It is not only the cost of the environment, but also the cost of ideas, behavior and entrepreneurship. At present, our concept of economic development is to seek big and fast, large-scale, and fast. The industrial system has no upward innovation. It implements horizontal industrialization based on imitation and follow-up. It has less accumulation of industrial technology, and has not established a modern and advanced industrial civilization. If ideas are not innovated, the third industrial revolution will bring us more challenges than opportunities

second, institutional innovation. When the low-cost advantage of China's industrial development is facing challenges, only through institutional innovation can China's industry enhance its advantageous position in the new round of international competition. The government should carry out transformation in time, actively change the role of the government, constantly optimize government functions, promote the government's own reform efforts, and truly give play to the fundamental role of the market in resource allocation. We should deepen the reform of the scientific and technological system, integrate the existing scientific research resources, and form a national research and development system for common industrial technologies. We should strengthen strategic planning and top-level design and promote the process of building an industrial power

third, technological innovation. Scientific and technological innovation is the key to the success of Chinese industry

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